Published Research Using WMTC Data
Frey, D. and A. Schaffner. 2004. Spatial and temporal patterns of monarch overwintering abundance in Western North America. In Oberhauser, K.S. and M.J. Solensky, eds. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Jepsen, S. and S.H. Black. 2015. Understanding and conserving the western North American monarch population. In Oberhauser, K.S., K.R. Nail, and S.M. Alitizer, eds. Monarchs in a Changing World: Biology and Conservation of an Iconic Insect. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.
Koenig, W. 2006. Spatial synchrony of monarch butterflies. The American Midland Naturalist 155(1): 39-49.
Ries, L. and K. Oberhauser. 2015. A citizen army for science: quantifying the contributions of citizen scientists to our understanding of monarch butterfly biology. BioScience 65: 419-430.
Stevens, S.R. and D. Frey. 2010. Host plant pattern and variation in climate predict the location of natal grounds for migratory monarch butterflies in western North America. Journal of Insect Conservation 14: 731-744.
Vandenbosch, R. 2007. What do monarch population time series tell us about eastern and western population mixing? Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 61(1): 28-31.
Resources for Overwintering Site Management and Protection
The Xerces Society. State of the Monarch Butterfly Overwintering Sites in California. This report builds upon data collected at over 400 overwintering sites in California including population trends and habitat conditions. A top 50 list prioritizes sites for protection and active management, with conservation profiles for the top 25 sites.
Bell, E., L.P. Brower, W.H. Calvert, J. Dayton, D. Frey, K. Leong, D. Murphy, R.M. Pyle, W. Sakai, K.B. Snow, and S. Weiss. 1993. The Monarch Project’s conservation and management guidelines for preserving the monarch butterfly migration and monarch overwintering habitat in California. A guide for land managers and community activists.
Griffiths, J. and F. Villablanca. 2013. Management of monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering habitat: recommendations based on patterns of tree use. Unpublished report.
International Environmental Law Project. 2012. The legal status of monarch butterflies in California.
Monarch Joint Venture. Potential risks of growing exotic (non-native) milkweeds for monarchs.